Check out the evolution of Operating Systems

20 September 2010 | In Tips | 18,1 thousand views | By

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guiNowadays you know the most exquisite Operating Systems, with increasingly realistic graphics effects and stunning. But what about doing a little time travel, find out how it all started and how did evolution so far? This is a proposal from the General Tips group for with you. Already packed his bags? So come on.

First, explain the meaning of the acronym GUI, that is much used in the course of this matter. Graphical User Interface (Graphical User Interface) is the visible part of the Operating System, that allows the user to interact with the system by observing your options and selecting them, generating commands and performing tasks in computer.

The first GUI It was developed in the year 1970, by Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). The first computer to use a graphical interface was the Xerox Alto, in 1973. This was not marketable, was restricted-use to researchers and universities.

xerox alto

Xerox 8010 Star

This was the first fully integrated system to a desktop with applications and GUI, released on 1981. It started with the name of The Xerox Star, passing to ViewPoint and, Finally, GlobalView.

xerox 8010 star

Apple Lisa Office System 1

Also known as Lisa The, This was a system for Office, developed by Apple (1983) with the intention of building a bankroll development of documents.

apple lisa 1

apple lisa os 1

VisiCorp Visi On

Visi On was the first GUI developed for the IBM PC. This system has reached large companies and cost very expensive. The GUI created for use mouse also contained Installer programs and help system, but dispensed with the use of icons.

visi on

visi on

Mac OS System 1.0

The system 1.0 It was the first GUI developed for Macintosh. This modern, including Windows features. The Windows could be moved by mouse, and the ripped files with a simple drag and drop.

mac os 1

Amiga Workbench 1.0

The GUI includes features like colors, semi-multitarefas, stereo sound and icons.

amiga workbench 101

amiga workbench 10

Windows 1.0

In 1985 the Microsoft Finally developed the Windows 1.0, your first GUI-based system. Featured 32 × 32 pixels icons and diverse colours. The most interesting feature was the animated analog clock.

windows 1

windows 11


GEM (Graphical Environment Manager) It was a style of Windows GUI based developed by Digital Research, Inc. (DRI). It was initially created for use with CP/M operating systems on processors Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000, and then developed for DOS. Most people remember the GEM GUI by computers Atari ST. This was also used in the series Amstrad the IBM. Were disclosed various applications. The GUI was deployed on other computers but didn't do as much success in these.

gem 11 desktop1


The operating system 64-bit IRIX was created on UNIX. An interesting feature of this GUI was the support for icons in vectors. This feature was implemented in the GUI long before the Mac OS X exist.

irix 33


GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) It was developed by Berkeley Softworks (later GeoWorks). Was originally developed for the Commodore 64, including a text editor, called geoWrite and a program of drawings (paintings) named geoPaint.

geos commodore 64

Windows 2.0

In this version, the interaction with the Windows has been improved. The Windows could be restored, resized, minimized and maximized.

windows 2

windows 21

OS/2 1

OS/2 was originally co-developed by IBM and Microsoft, but in 1991 the two companies parted ways, with Microsoft incorporating technology in GUI on Windows and IBM to develop OS/2 alone. The GUI used in OS/2 was called "Presentation Manager”. This GUI version only supported monochrome graphics and fixed icons.

os 2 1

os 2 11


Steve Jobs shone with the idea of creating a computer perfect for researchers and universities. The idea subsequently involved the creation of NeXT Computer Inc..

The first NeXT computer was created on 1988, with various advances in 1989 and the development of GUI NeXTSTEP 1.0, later OPENSTEP.

GUI icons were great (48× 48 pixels) and included several colors. The GUI was monochrome, but the version 1.0 started support for more colors. This was a great tip-foot home for modern GUIs.

nextstep 1

OS/2 1.20

The next version of the GUI had several improvements in several areas. The icons in the Windows became more interactive.

os 2 12

Windows 3.0

In this version, Microsoft introduced its full potential in the GUI, and initiated a process of improvement in the same.

The OS supported modes standard and enhanced 386, supporting high memory capacity as 640 KB and larger hard drive, large screens may be used and better graphics, as 800 × 600 and 1024 SuperVGA × 768.

Microsoft hired Susan Kare to draw Windows icons 3.0 and add a unique style to the GUI.

windows 3

windows 31

Amiga Workbench 2.04

Many improvements have been made in this version of the GUI. The colors were changed and the 3D was implemented. The work was divided into different color screens and resolutions, that today seems to be very odd. The default resolution was 640 × 256, but the hardware supported, also, higher resolutions.

amiga workbench 2

Mac OS System 7

The version 7.0 the Mac OS was the first GUI Mac OS with color support. Gray, Blue and yellow were added to icons.

macos 7

macos 7

Windows 3.1

This version of Windows includes fonts TrueType Fonts pre-installed. This resulted, for the first time, on a Windows platform functional for desktop publishing.

Previously, It was only possible to achieve this functionality in Windows 3.0 using Adobe Type Manager (ATM), Adobe's font system. This version also includes a color scheme called Hotdog Stand, bright red tones which contained, yellow and black.

This color scheme was created to help people with some degree of color blindness to get some text/graphics on the screen more easily.

windows 311 workspace

OS/2 2.0

This was the first GUI that was subjected to international acceptance, usability and accessibility testing. The entire GUI was developed using object oriented design. All files and folders were objects that could be associated with other files, folders and applications. Included, also, the drag and drop function.

os 2 2

os 2 21

Windows 95

The user interface has been completely redesigned since version 3. This was the first version of Windows in which a small button of close was added to each window.

The project team has given the Member States activated, disabled, selected, marked etc. for icons and other graphical components. The famous Start menu appears for the first time.

This was a big step for Microsoft as the operating system itself and unified graphical interface.

windows 951

windows 95

OS/2 Warp 4

IBM OS/2 Warp was released 4, that brought a significant facility for the desktop.

The icons were positioned on the desktop, where files and also custom folders could be created. The Recycle Bin that appeared was similar to that of Windows and Mac OS, except that if the file or folder immediately, and are not saved any additional copies for later retrieval.

os 2 warp 4

os 2 warp 41

Mac OS 8

256 colors in icons was the default in this version of the GUI. The Mac OS 8 He was one of the pioneers of the isometric style icons, also called pseudo-3D icons. The gray theme Platinum had become a trademark for future versions of the GUI.

macos 8

Windows 98

The styles of icons were almost the same as in Windows 95, but the whole GUI could use more of 256 processing color. Windows Explorer has changed almost completely and the “Active Desktop” first appeared.

windows 98

KDE 1.0

It is thus that the KDE Team outlined the project to release the version 1.0: “KDE is a transparent network, the modern desktop environment for UNIX system. KDE seeks to fill the need for a desktop, easy-to-use Unix workstations, similar to desktop environments found in Mac OS or Windows 95/NT. The computing platform is completely free and available to everybody for free open, including your source code for any modification.”

kde 10

BeOs 4.5

The BeOS operating system was developed for personal computers. It was originally written by Be In, in 1991, to run on hardware BeBox. Later, was developed to take advantage of new hardware technologies such as symmetric multiprocessing, using modules i/o bandwidth, multithreading, preemptive multitasking and an option 64 bits of the file system known as BFS. The BeOS GUI was developed on the principles of clarity of a clean design and organized.

beos desktop


The GNOME desktop is designed primarily for the Red Hat Linux, later for other Linux distributions as well.

gnome 1

Mac OS X

At the beginning of the year 2000 Apple announced their new interface Aqua and, in 2001, the company has launched its new operating system called Mac OS X.

The default of 32 icons×32 and 48×48 large icons have been changed to (128×128) with anti-aliasing and semi-transparência.

Many of the criticisms followed after the launch of this GUI. Apparently, users were not quite ready for a change so great, but soon adopted the new GUI style and today represents the Foundation for all Mac OS X operating systems.

mac osx 1

Windows XP

As Microsoft tends to completely change your GUI with each operating system version, with Windows XP was no different. The GUI itself is personalisável, where the user can change the whole look and feel of the interface at any time. The icons have standard size 48×48, rendered in millions of colors.

windows xp


Starting with version 1.0, KDE has improved significantly. They re-cast all graphics and icons, unifying the entire user experience.

kde 3

Windows Vista

This was the response from Microsoft to your competition. It also includes many animations and 3D effects. Since Windows 98, Microsoft has always tried to improve the working environment. With Windows Vista, They launched widgets and an improved Active Desktop replacement part.

windows vista

Mac OS X Leopard

With its sixth generation, the Mac OS X from Apple, Once again, improved user interface. The default is still the Aqua GUI, with its scroll bars in Platinum gray and blue. The new GUI features a 3D aspect, with the 3D dock and much more interactive animations.

mac osx leopard

GNOME 2.24

GNOME has deposited a great effort in creating themes and artwork in v 2.2.4, with the goal of “make your computer to your face”. They participated in a contest to create some of the most interactive scenarios.

gnome en gb

KDE v4

The version 4 KDE has brought many new improvements to the GUI, such as animation, efficient management of Windows and support for widgets on the desktop. The size of the icons are easily adjustable and almost all elements of design are much easier to configure. Some of the most noticeable changes include new icons, themes and sounds, that are provided by Project Oxygen (Oxygen). These icons are more realistic. It is definitely a big improvement over previous versions of KDE. Can now also be run on Windows and Mac OS X platforms.


Windows Seven (7)

Windows 7 is a more modest update to the row of Windows systems, and came with the intention to make it fully compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista is already compatible. The system relies on a “Shell” new, with a different taskbar, a system of “network” called “HomeGroup” and a large increase in performance. Algumas aplicações que foram incluídas em releases anteriores do Windows, as the Windows Calendar, Windows Mail, Windows Movie Maker and Windows Photo Gallery were not included in Windows 7. Some of these are offered separately as part of the Windows Live Essentials.

windows 7 beta

You, probably, you are using one of these GUIs in your computer right now. What do you think of it? After you follow the whole evolution of Operating Systems, She would tell us what is to come? The changes were entirely notable since the beginning of smart computing. Leave your comment, using the form below.

In Ivaiporã-PR, Computer engineer, Workgroup Administrator Tips in General. Passionate about technology and Informatics.

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