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Intel 3D Transitor: understand their importance

10 may 2011 | In Tips | 324 views | By

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Design leaves competitors behind. Entenda como ele funciona e porque todos os chips de computers deverão usar esta technology.

Intel announced on Wednesday (04/05) have made the production of 3D transistors into a viable commercial reality and stated that, in doing so, would continue to meet or exceed the promise of Moore's law for years to come. The co-founder of the company, Gordon Moore, envisioned that through several chemical and process innovations – that the geometrical – encolheriam transistors and products designed to become more powerful and cheaper – or both. But that doesn't mean that adhere to this maxim is easy. Requires constant investment and research to discover and commercialize innovations.

intel 3dHow they are used in integrated circuits, as microprocessors, the transistors can be idealized as switches: When they are connected, current flows, When powered off, She to. The goal of the design is the perfect switching transistor, a lot of energy flowing when connected, no power when turned off and he changes quickly State,requiring, to do this, little energy. Usually, the smaller the transistor, less energy he needs to accomplish these tasks. But the smaller they get, their behavior is a switch for a valve. The valves take time to close, may leak and, the more stuff you wish go through them, further they have to be.

Using the analogy of the valve, one can immediately understand some truisms of transistors. Those who leak are bad and minors, usually, open and close faster than larger ones, but less water (or current, in the case of transistors) pass. They chose the geometry, the fabrication process and materials used to meet the speed, power consumption and lower cost.

Transitores

The chips in the CPUs of the first PCs, designed in the 1970, had about 3.500 transistors and wore a manufacturing process 10 micrometers. Now, the chips have some three billion transistors and use the closing process 10 nanometer, getting almost a million times smaller than those of the 1970. For this to happen, almost everything about the manufacture of chips has changed in these 40 years, mas uma coisa continuava a mesma – até agora – a nature plana do processador.

The classical manufacturing begins with the substrate chip, usually a slice of Silicon.  To make transistors from that slice, manufacturers go through procedures for depositing materials and then get them out. Each layer of material is different, each one uses a different way to produce the desired geometry. The result is a flat design process – if you want more current flow, increases the channel. If you want to quickly closing valves, make them as small as possible, and so forth.

The valve, or gate, It is a material that is opposite to the channel. Depending on the State of the gate, the material of the channel leads better or worse this energy. When a transistor is switched off (without this electric field), still passes current through the channel. This is known as current leakage, and even only a little leak is not good news. Even though little leak in a transistor, If it is multiplied by billions, the Bill increases. On servers, isso resulta em aquecimento nos devices portables, resulting in a shorter lifespan.

Basically, the smaller the channel, the greater the concern with the current leak. Like this, If manufacturers make smaller gates, have to be more careful to hit the geometry. Two of the techniques used to limit the leak include silicon and high-k Dielectrics.
As the goal is always to put more transistors on a chip, the channel can not be wider, so the answer is the vertical. This creates a larger surface area between the canal and the gate, allowing a better control of its characteristics. Besides allowing a better control of current leakage, use the vertical also allows faster operation of the gate. Now you can close the channel three sides – hence the name tri-gate – in one comes. Alternatively, the operating voltage can be reduced, that is what saves energy when the transistor – and therefore the device – is in its active state.

Problem

Despite the elegant concept, the vertical line has a problem. Does not work very well in the classic process of deposition and corrosion of material to create the integrated circuit. This, junto com other desafios materiais, This is what apparently Intel decided in a way that is commercially viable. As viable to use your 3D design does not incur in more than 3% in the cost.

Intel has an advantage over this technology, your competitors are at least 24 months after its conquest. With the new technology, the operating voltage of the transistor, can download, saving energy and keeping the performance. The company – and its competitors – is heading to 14nm processes, What will surely require the geometry of 3D transistor for keeping power dissipation. 3D technology of transistors enables all Chipmakers. The good news is that Moore's law follows its course.

In Ivaiporã-PR, Computer engineer, Workgroup Administrator Tips in General. Passionate about technology and Informatics.



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